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Is my Clivia poisonous to pets?

I have heard this question raised a number of times lately as people become more aware of the dangers of lilies with cats. Many people think of Clivia as a lily, and it is sometimes known as the Bush Lily or Flame Lily. As the owner of a cat and a dog, I was also concerned about this issue, so decided to conduct some research.

Clivia are from the Amaryllidaceae family which is well-known for containing a number of alkaloids including a crystalline alkaloid called lycorine which is toxic to humans and pets. The toxin has an emetic effect, resulting in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, salivation and diarrhea when only a small quantity is ingested. It is extremely rare for a pet to ingest a large enough quantity to cause life threatening toxicosis as the vomiting symptoms occur quite soon after ingesting parts of the plant. All parts of the Clivia contain lycorine but the highest concentrate is found in the berries and the base.

Many ornamental bulbs including daffodils, tulips, hyacinths and autumn crocus also contain alkaloids that are toxic if eaten. Dogs have been known to dig up and consume newly planted bulbs, particularly if Blood and Bone or a similar fertiliser has been used. In bulbous plants, the concentration of toxins is in the bulb and ingestion of the bulb is more harmful than ingestion of foliage. Interesting is that during World War II in Holland, people ate tulip bulbs as they were starving. Reports are that they ate parts of the bulb, removing the centre part as it is the poisonous section.

The toxicity of Clivia plants is not to be confused with members of the Liliaceae or Hemerocallis family (true lilies) which can cause renal failure in cats. True lilies are very toxic and even consuming less than one leaf, licking the water from a vase, or a small amount of pollen can lead to severe toxicosis and even death in cats.  Cats are unique in their susceptibility to lilies. Dogs who have ingested lilies are known to suffer from minor digestive upsets but not renal failure. Lilies known to cause kidney failure in cats include: (Easter lily) Lilium longiflorum, (Tiger lily) Lilium tigrinum, (Rubrum) Lilium speciosum, (Japanese show lily) Lilium lancifolium (Stargazer lily) Lilium oreintalis, (Daylily) Hemerocallis species.

A number of other family groups have a low toxicity level such as Philodendrons, Calla lilies and Peace lilies. They contain oxalic acid which hurts the mouth and throat, so the pet is not likely to eat large amounts.

If you own cats or dogs, it is advisable to take steps to ensure their safety around plants.

  • Before purchasing indoor plants, research the botanical name and ensure the plant is not harmful to cats or dogs.
  • Do not purchase lilies as cut flowers or bring a pot of flowering lilies into the house if you own a cat.
  • If you wish to use Blood and Bone or Dynamic Lifter in your garden, keep a close watch on the behaviour of your dog. You may have to restrain the dog for a few days.
  • If you become aware of your dog digging in the garden, ensure there are not toxic plants in the immediate area or fence off any plants you are concerned about.
  • If you witness these symptoms from your pet or more serious symptoms such as seizures, paralysis or cardiac arrhythmias, consult a veterinary immediately.

 

The plants listed below are known to be toxic to pets if parts are ingested. This list is not complete and does not state whether the toxic level is low, medium or high risk.

Allium ampeloprasum (Leek) Allium cepa (Onion)

 

Allium sativum (Garlic)

 

Allium schoenoprasum (Chives)

 

Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera (Aloe Vera)

 

Amaryllis sp. (Belladonna lily)

 

Andromeda Japonica (Lily of the Valley)

 

Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Pine)

 

Asparagus densiflorus cv sprengeri (Asparagus fern, lace fern)

 

Begonia spp. (Begonia)

 

Brunsfelsia spp. (Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow)

 

Buxus sp. (Box hedge)

 

Caladium hortulanum, Alocasia spp. Colocasia esculenta (Elephant’s Ears)

 

Chrysanthemum spp. (Chrysanthemum, Daisy)

 

Citrus aurantifolia (Lime)

 

Citrus limonia (Lemon)

 

Citrus paradisii (Grapefruit)

 

Citrus sinensis (Orange)

 

Clematis sp. (Clematis)

 

Colchium autumnale (autumn crocus)

 

Crassula arborescens, Crassula argentea (Jade plant)

 

Cyclamen spp (Cyclamen)

 

Dahlia spp. (Dahlia)

 

Delphinium spp. (Delphinium)

 

Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation, Dianthus)

 

Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove)

 

Dracaena fragrans, Dracaena spp. Dracaena marginate, Ipomoea batatas (Dracaena)

 

Dracaena deremensis, tradescantia multiflora (Bridal Veil)

 

Erigeron speciosus (Seaside Daisy)

 

Eucalyptus spp (Eucalytptus)

 

Euphorbia pulcherrima (Pointsietta)

 

Ficus benjamina (Fig)

 

Gardenia jasminoides  (Gardenia)

 

Gladiolus spp. (Gladiola)

 

Gypsophila elegans (Baby’s breath)

 

Helleborus niger (Hellebore)

 

Hemerocallis spp. (Day lily)

 

Hibiscus syriacus (Hibiscus)

 

Hippeastrum spp. (Hippeastrum)

 

Hosta plataginea (Hosta)

 

Hyacinthus orientalis (Hyacinth)

 

Hydrangea arborescens (Hydrangea)

 

Ipomoea spp. (Morning Glory)

 

Iris spp. (Iris)

 

Lantana camara (Lantana)

 

Lathyrus latifolius (Sweet Pea)

 

Laurus nobilis (Bay tree)

 

Lavendula angustifolia (Lavender)

 

Lilumn asiatica (Asiatic lily)

 

Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily)

 

Lilium speciosum (Japanese Show lily)

 

Lilium sp. (Lily)

 

Lilium tigrinum (Tiger lily)

 

Lobelia cardinalis (Lobelia)

 

Lycopersicon spp. (Tomato plant)

 

Malus Sulvestrus (apple seeds including crab apples)

 

Mentha sp. (Mint)

 

Narcissus spp (Daffodil, Jonquil)

 

Nasturtium officinale (Nasturtium)

 

Nerium oleander (Oleander)

 

Origanum vulgare hirtum (Oregano)

 

Paeonis officinalis (Peony)

 

Pelargonium spp. (Geranium)

 

Petroselinum crispum (Parsley)

 

Philodendron oxycardium, Philodendron bipennifolium Philodendron spp .(Philodendron)

 

Phoradendron flavescens, Phoradendron leucarpum (Mistletoe)

 

Portulaca oleracea (Portulaca)

 

Poinciana gillesii, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Strelitzia reginae (Bird of Paradise)

 

Primula vulgaris (Primrose)

 

Prunus armeniaca (seed from plum, prune, peach, cherry)

 

Rheum rhabarbarium (Rhubarb)

 

Rhododendron spp (Azalea)

 

Sansevieria trifasciata (Mother-in-law’s Tongue)

 

Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily)

 

Tulipa spp. (Tulip)

 

wisteria spp.  (Wisteria)

 

Yucca sp. (Yucca)

 

Zamia furfuracea, Cycas spp (Cycads)

 

Zantedeschia aethiopica (Calla lily, Arum lily)

 

 

References

https://www.dirtonmyhands.com/poisonous-plants-to-cats.html
http://aspcapro.org/sites/pro/files/f-vettech_0402_1.pdf
http://www.aspcapro.org/sites/pro/files/h.pdf
http://www.pawsdogdaycare.com/toxic-and-non-toxic-plants/clivia-lily

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Raising seedlings

 

After germinating seed, when should the seedlings be potted?

If you germinated seed on top of potting mix in a small pot then there is no need to transplant the seedlings at this stage. They can happily grow together in a community pot until they are about 2 years of age. I have included a photo of some happy seedlings that are about 18 months old.

If you have germinated the seed in a small cell tray, when would you transplant the seedling?

Once the seed has a root growing down into the mix and the root is at least 1 – 2cm long, and there is a green leaf growing upward and the leaf is least 1 – 2cm long then I transplant the seedling. Of course you can wait longer until the seedling is larger but the root has a limited chance to grow downward in a cell tray. If possible, it is better to germinate the seeds on the top of a pot and then there is no need to transplant them. In my case, as I have so many seeds to germinate, I use cell trays so I can place them on heat mats to hurry up the process.

What do you transplant them into?

If I have to transplant baby seedlings, I do this very gently as they are fragile at this stage. I mostly use 50mm native tubes as I can fit 50 tubes in one stand, and I am placing 2 seedlings per tube. Seedlings are quite happy sharing with a friend or if you are planting into a small pot, they are happy in a community pot with a few others. I have included a photo of seedlings in my seedling shade house happily sharing. I also use 100mm pots as community pots.

I pot them into seed raising mix that I make up, though the store bought one is fine. Poke a little hole in the mix and place the seedling root into the hole. Gently firm the mix around the seedling and then fully water so all mix is wet.

Where do I place the pots and how do I look after the seedlings?

Keep the seedlings out of the sun completely. The best place to keep them is in a shaded and sheltered position, preferably on the south side of your house under the eaves, under a verandah, or in the house is good too. When my seedlings are first repotted after germination, it is still winter here in Melbourne. I feel it is too cold for them in the shade house, even though it has a solar weave cover over it. The seedlings have lived their short lives on a heat mat, so I keep the pots in my germination area until spring. Once I feel the temperatures rising and the frosts are over, I take the pots down to the shade house.

Be careful not to place the pots where the seedlings may come into contact with hail, heavy rain or wind. As mentioned, they are a bit fragile at this stage.

Thoroughly water the pots once or twice a week. Seedlings like to be kept very slightly damp but not wet. Wet will kill them. They should not be sitting in water or a saucer of water. The water needs to drain out the bottom of the pot. If you feel they are drying out too much, give them a spray each day with a water spray bottle, or give them a light spray with a hose.

Should I fertilise them?

The seedlings will still have their seed attached for about 6 months and they get nourishment from the seed. Most seed raising mixes have a slow release fertiliser in them so I don’t think it is vitally important to fertilise them in the first 6 months. If I am using a foliar spray fertiliser on plants in the same shade house then I will spray the babies as well.

Once they are 6 months old then it is a good idea to give them a weakened solution of a soluble fertiliser regularly. There are many good fertilisers available but the ones I have used are PowerFeed and Seamungus. In a perfect world, I would use the weakened solution on the seedlings once a month in Spring, Summer and Autumn. Unfortunately I am not disciplined enough with too many seedlings so I make sure they also have Osmocote.

What about Pests and Diseases?

With seedlings, the worst pests are caterpillars, mealy bug and fungus gnats, but you may also experience problems with other pests depending on where you live. A caterpillar can decimate a little seedling overnight. Mealy bugs and Fungus Gnats can cause damage that can result in rot and the seedling ‘falling over’. Prevention is better than cure. Spraying regularly with Eco-oil can go a long way toward prevention. Yellow sticky traps are good for killing fungus gnats.

When do I repot them individually or plant into the garden?

I would not plant the seedlings in the garden until they are about 2 years of age, unless they will be in a well-sheltered position and safe from frost, storms, sun, hail and heavy rain. It also doesn’t hurt to use a small bamboo stake or similar and a soft tie to secure the seedling so there is no movement when you wriggle the seedling. This will help them to grow roots and establish. Make sure they go into a well-drained soil and water them in.

I find the period between baby seedling and 2 year old is a dangerous time to repot seedlings. They do not like to be disturbed and need at least 3 leaves before I would attempt to repot. This is why I do not sell seedlings on my website until they are at least 2 years of age.

If you are planning to keep your plants in pots for the future, you can leave them in the community pot until they are bulging to get out. Although if they are left too long, then there is no goodness left in the seed raising mix and also the roots are limited as to where they can grow.

As I usually use 100mm pots for community pots of 5 – 10 seedlings, when I repot them at 2 years of age, I would most likely pot one seedling per 100mm pot. If some seedlings are still a bit small even though they are 2 years old, then I would keep all the small seedlings in the community pot for a longer period of time and just repot the larger seedlings.

With seedlings, it is better to keep them in a slightly small to snug sized pot than to overpot them.

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Germinating seeds

There are so many different methods of germinating Clivia seeds and I have probably tried most of them over the years. Everything from putting the seeds in a Chinese take-away container with sphagnum moss, placing them in a plastic bag with sphagnum moss to adding a dome or cover on top of the seed tray to create a mini-greenhouse effect. I have even tried leaving the seeds in a glass of water to see if they would germinate at some expert’s suggestion.

There is no right or wrong way of germinating seeds. Some methods work well for some people and the best thing is to stick to what works for you.

What I will outline here is a very simple method that works well and is easily achievable for the layman.

Do I need to wash or soak the seeds when I receive them?

Growers generally wash the seeds when they are peeling them from the berries. In most cases this is with a dish washing liquid that does have some anti-bacterial properties. The seeds should be clean and free of any membrane material or dirt when you receive them. I do wash any seeds I receive from other growers in water with dish washing liquid added. This ensures that I am starting with clean seed as often international seed has been rolled in Sulphur Powder which tends to sting the eyes and taste revolting if it get on your hands and eventually your mouth.

Years ago I used to soak seed for 24 hours in either diluted bleach, Super Thrive or HB101 but at the end of the day, I don’t believe it made any difference to the germination of the seed. As long as the seed is fresh and clean, it does not need to be soaked. I have at times received shrivelled up seed and have soaked it in water to see if it improved the outcome but I think that was wishful thinking.

What is an easy way of germinating Clivia seeds?

Fill a small pot with seed raising mix which is easily available at Bunnings or possibly your supermarket. You can also use potting mix or a number of other types of medium, but I have found seedlings do well in seed raising mix.

Wet the mix thoroughly and place the seeds on the top of the mix. Do not bury the seeds. They are happy sitting on the top. You will notice on each seed there is a small raised bump. This is called the radicle and is where the root will grow out and hopefully downward. Sometimes it is necessary to gently turn the seed over once germination has happened so the root grows down into the mix.

Place the pot in a warm position but not in direct sunlight. Keep a water spray bottle handy and each day give the seeds a little spray. They like to be a little damp but not too wet as this will encourage rot. Germination should happen within a few weeks.

This method allows air flow around the seeds and lessens the chances of fungus, mould and rot.

If you see small flying insects hanging around the pot, spray with Pyrethrum. These could possibly be Fungus Gnats which will harm the health of your sprouting seeds or seedlings.

Do I need to use a heat mat?

Years ago people used to place the seed trays on top of the fridge as they received bottom heat from the old fridges, but I believe new fridges are different now and these days, they are built in to cabinets. Heat mats or bottom heat certainly speeds up the germination process but is not necessary.

I use heat mats which can be purchased online for around $50 each as I have so many seeds to germinate each year that they have to queue up to get on the seed trays. By speeding up the germination process, I can get through the germinating process in half the time it would have taken without heat.

If you are not in a hurry then there is no need to buy a heat mat.

What happens after the seeds have germinated?

After germination a root will grow down into the mix. Sometimes it may be necessary to poke a little hole in the mix with your finger and gently place the root into it if the root is growing sidewards. The roots need to be kept a little damp and not dry out. When they are growing out of the mix, they can dry out easily.

Soon after you will see a small green leaf developing. All going well there is no need to do anything other than keep them a little damp by watering the pot thoroughly once per week. If you think the mix is drying out too fast for the one week watering, then water as often as you think is needed to keep them a little damp but not wet.

Growing Clivia from seed can be a fun and fascinating road of discovery. Each different cross can be so variable and the bad news is, it is an addiction without a cure.